General Data
Name of instrument Municipal density models (= Dichtemodelle)
Country DE
Spatial level local
Type Spatial planning instrument
Subtype Informal planning instrument
Description Municipal density models assign differing building densities to various development areas of the municipality depending on their provision of public transport, their central-place-function and spatial category. By realising high densities in designated areas, public transport and provision of public services can be maintained much more cost-effective in times of demographic change. These densities need to be realized through formal spatial planning instruments such as the land use plan and local development plan.
General objectives Coordinating land development with areas of above-average public transport and service infrastructure.
planning principles
General objectives keywords inner-urban densification; brownfield development; municipal infrastructure costs; greenfield development; planning principles;
Responsible Local authority/Municipal council
Stakeholder Involved Private individuals; Planners; Entrepreneurs/businessmen; Public service providers;
Reference Westphal, Christiane / Hutter, Gerard (2006): Dichtemodelle und ihre Integration in kommunale Strategien für eine qualitative Innenentwicklung. In: Fläche - Zukunft - Raum. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften. Heft 37/2006. p. 77-91. Siedentop, Stefan et al (2004): Handlungsansätze zur Berücksichtigung der Umwelt-, Aufenthalts- und Lebensqualität im Rahmen der Innenentwicklung von Städten und Gemeinden - Fallstudien, p. 30,
General assessment of strength and weakness The position of density models has been strengthened recently (2004 amendment of the German Civil Code on Construction) as they now belong to an official catalogue of documents that have to be considered in formal planning procedures. Density models are particularly easy to implement in prospering regions, while in declining regions with low real estate prices they considerably lack acceptance.
Date of entry 29.01.2007
Legal status not-mandatory for responsible body, BUT mandatory for end-user
Extension rarely (< 25%)
Comment Implementation is currently still in the initial stage.
Type of monitoring Report basing on quantitative indicators
Preconditions for implementation Density models can also be part of local land development plans. In that case they need to be considered as formal instruments with binding character.
Best practise example Density model as part of the Greater Karlsruhe Land Use Plan
Example Abstract The municipality of Karlsruhe and its surrounding municipalities joined in drafting a Joint Land Use Plan for the region, which also includes binding density models oriented towards centers and corridors of public transport provision =>
General comment
Status -
Ranking 5
Remark -
Status Approval: environmental NGOs and superordinate authorities
Ranking 2
Status -
Ranking 2
Remark -
Status Requires staff for calculating and drafting density models and legislation for mandatory integration in land use plans
Ranking 4
Remark -
Status -
Ranking 3
Remark Goal of instrument is difficult to achieve in declining regions (acceptability not fulfilled)