General Data
Name of instrument Local urban planning document (Plan local d'urbanisme - PLU)
Country FR
Spatial level local
Type Spatial planning instrument
Subtype Formal planning instrument
Description The PLU is the urban planning document of a commune or a set of communes membership of an intercommunal co-operation structure. However, small communities can establish only a 'carte communale' (communal chart), although communities faced with strong land demand may find it very beneficial to set up a PLU. The whole area of the communities concerned is subjected to PLU, besides those areas whose development falls within the competence of the State: sectors safeguarded like historical centres of the cities and operations of national interest. PLU consists notably in setting up at first a Projet d'Aménagement et de Développement Durable (PADD - Planning and sustainable development project) which acts as a political document expressing the project of the commune at the horizon from 10 to 20 years. Then, PLU comprises a graphic document, in form of a regulatory map, designating the following sectors: - Urbanised zones, known as "zones U": they are "the already urbanized sectors and the sectors where the existing public equipment or under development has a sufficient capacity to serve constructions to be established"; - Zones to urbanize, known as "zones AU": these are sectors which are intended to be developed. One distinguishes two types of zones AU: on one hand, those that can immediately be urbanized due to the presence of cleansing existing with the immediate periphery of a zone AU having "the sufficient capacity to serve constructions to be established in the whole of this zone"; on the other hand those where this capacity is insufficient, for which their development is subordinated to a modification or a revision of the PLU; - Agrarian zones, known as "zones A": they are the "sectors of the commune, equipped or not, to protect because of agronomic, biological or economic potential of the arable lands" - Natural and forest zones, known as "zones N": they are the "sectors of the commune, equipped or not, to protect because either of quality of the sites, the natural environments, the landscapes and their interest, in particular from the aesthetic, historical or ecological point of view, or of the existence of a forestry development, or of their character of natural spaces" - The PLU designates also particular sectors, like classified wooded spaces or the reserved sites (in particular for the future construction of public equipment). The PLU describes, for each sector delineated in the graphic document, the applicable regulations. They deal notably with: - Types of land use prohibited or subjected to particular conditions - Accessibility through roadway system and networks (water, cleansing, electricity) - Distance of constructions from roadways and public equipments - Characteristics of plots (size, etc) - Maximum height of constructions, appearance, car parks - Open space and classified wooded spaces - Developed surface of constructions compared with surface of plots, for U and AU zones Furthermore, setting up a PLU takes into account existing constraints or documents, concerning for example constraints of public utility related on architectural heritage, on the air lines (Plan of noise exposure...), to the lines of transport of energy (electricity...) or the Plans of prevention of the natural hazards (PPR).
General objectives Efficient local spatial planning with respect to objective of giving an operational reach to the communal planning and sustainable development project, in setting up a comprehensive regulatory framework of reference which integrates construction, public equipment, landscape and environment
General objectives keywords land development; building land; settlement pattern; municipal land policy;
Responsible Local authority/Municipal council
Stakeholder Involved National authority; Private individuals;
Reference Founded by SRU law of December 13th, 2000. The PLU replace the former Plan d'Occupation des Sols (land use plans)
General assessment of strength and weakness Main planning instrument implemented at communal level. Like as all planning documents, PLU are complicated, long duration of the procedure, and do not prevent risks of negative side effects, notably due to mayors political instability. One issue is consistency of the PLU within the same region, and instability of related regulations, since PLUs are currently revised or updated. The PLU have binding character. PLU must be consistent with instructions given in various documents of higher row prepared by the State or other local authorities, in a relation of ascending vertical compatibility: laws Mountain and Littoral, territorial directives of installation (or DTA, of official competence), SCOT (urban planning master development plans), local program of habitat, etc
Date of entry 2007/02/16
Legal status not-mandatory for responsible body, BUT mandatory for end-user
Extension very frequent (> 50 % municipalities)
Comment PLU is mandatory for certain communes, for example those who have set up a natural hazards prevention plan (PPR). For the implementation status quo, see:
Type of monitoring Qualitative / descriptive reporting
Preconditions for implementation
General comment
Status strong direct relevance
Ranking 5
Remark -
Status municipal administration. Local economy, environmental NGOs, municipal residents, superordinate administrations
Ranking 5
Status -
Ranking 5
Remark -
Status Legislation, staff (or budget), political will
Ranking 3
Remark Either budget or staff costs accrue, depending if the drafting of the plan is outsourced to a private consultant.
Status direction of effect, acceptability, perpetuity
Ranking 3
Remark -