General Data
Name of instrument Concerted development zones (Zones d'aménagement concerté - ZAC)
Country FR
Spatial level local
Type Spatial planning instrument
Subtype Formal planning instrument
Description The ZAC (concerted development zones) is an operation of development and equipment of public initiative and a mode of production of serviced plots to be built.The objectives of this type of operation can concern the development of economic activities and\or the supply of housing. It integrates the realization of public or collective equipments (drinking water, cleansing, roads, schools, dwellings, etc.), in order to develop land plots which it acquired or that it will acquire, to then yield them to public or private users. At the same time, it aims at facilitating the dialogue between the public authorities and the private promoters; it was also a question of carrying out devolution of official controls on the operations of urban development and a standardization of those. The development project of the ZAC precise public equipment and construction program (residences, activities, equipment) and is to be included in the local urban planning document (PLU) in order to better integrate this one in the surrounding urbanization. In the municipalities not endowed with a PLU, a ZAC can be created only in the already urbanized spaces or if the municipality is endowed with a Communal chart, in the spaces of extension of urbanization delineated by the chart. The owners of grounds included in this zone can compel the municipality or the public establishment which took the initiative of the creation to proceed to the acquisition of their grounds.
General objectives Rationalizing urban development through coordinating the realisation of public equipment in facilitating dialogue between public authorities and private promoters, in compliance with urban planning documents
General objectives keywords land development; building land; urban development;
Responsible Local authority/Municipal council
Stakeholder Involved Entrepreneurs/businessmen;
Reference SRU law of December 13th, 2000
General assessment of strength and weakness Common procedure which expresses the will of the municipality to develop land and to integrate public equipment, in establishing development projects with private developers. This procedure represents an alterrnative to that more often employed, the allotment, which is normally of private initiative. The developer signs a public agreement of development that can entrust acquisitions by expropriation or preemption. Thus ZAC can been seen as 'best practices' examples, since they are efficient against several objectives which may be assigned to urban development, which are, for example: creating new districts, revitalizing central distrcits (rehabilitation of housing, creating public spaces, etc), developing urban scenery, and promoting economic development through supplying grounds equipped and adapted to companies. Moreover, in any ZAC, the concern of urban and architectural integration dominate.
However, weaknesses can come from the fact that the public is not so far associated to this procedure, which can be seen as bureaucratic. Even when there are public debates when it comes to set up planning documents, their application, through the ZAC or other instruments, is more out of control of the inhabitants, besides judicial proceedings they can institute.
Date of entry 2007/02/16
Legal status not-mandatory for responsible body, BUT mandatory for end-user
Extension very frequent (> 50 % municipalities)
Comment Most important municipalities create ZAC
Type of monitoring Qualitative / descriptive reporting
Preconditions for implementation
General comment
Status strong direct relevance
Ranking 4
Remark -
Status municipal administration. Local economy, superordinate administrations
Ranking 3
Remark acceptance could be improved by more participation of the public (see weakness)
Status -
Ranking 5
Remark -
Status Legislation, budget, political will
Ranking 3
Remark -
Status Direction of effect, type of effect, perpetuity
Ranking 4
Remark -