General Data
Name of instrument Deregulation of building-related parking site requirement (= Befreiung von der Stellplatzpflicht)
Country DE
Spatial level local
Type Economic instruments
Subtype Creation of markets / regional marketing
Description Usually, land developers are required by municipal charters on construction and housing to reserve two parking slots per residential unit, which means that even car-free households have to provide parking facilities on their plot and carry the financial burdens. This creates particularly high costs in already urbanized areas where further development is desirable from the perspective of spatial planning. However, municipalities can reserve the option of financial compensation for not building parking slots on each individual plot, which reduces land demand for housing significantly. In neighborhoods with satisfactory access to public transportation, the municipality has the option to permanently (or for a certain period of time) abstain from this compensation, which is an instrument to attract land developers to these areas. The instrument can be combined with a centralized multi-storey car-park for the entire neighborhood financed through accruing compensations.
General objectives Reducing land demand per residential unit. Increase number of residential units per housing unit. Optimized use of land ressources through centralization of parking facilities. Creating market for providing parking facilities.
General objectives keywords inner-urban densification; internalisation of external costs; municipal infrastructure costs; public transport; land development; financial incentives;
Responsible Local authority/Municipal council
Stakeholder Involved Private individuals;
Reference Lehmbrock, Michael (2003): "Kompakt, urban, grün" Und die Stellplatzpflicht? Hutter, Gérard / Westphal, Christiane / Siedentop, Stefan et al (2004): Handlungsansätze zur Berücksichtigung der Umwelt-, Aufenthalts- und Lebensqualität im Rahmen der Innenentwicklung von Städten und Gemeinden - Fallstudien, p.277, online at und
General assessment of strength and weakness Implementation of polluter-pays-principle in the field of parking facility provision in urban areas. Costs accrue only for those who actually own a car and use public space for parking. Creation of a market for the provision of parking facilities.
Weaknesses: Private sector cannot be held accountable if urban neighborhoods are supplied with insufficient parking facilities. Regulation of this deficiency is strictly being limited to market forces (supply and demand).
Date of entry 29.01.2007
Legal status not-mandatory for responsible body, BUT mandatory for end-user
Extension rarely (< 25%)
Comment In the case of Berlin, the introduction of this instrument did not reduce the number of available parking facilities, it rather reduced the effect of car-free-households having to subsidize car-owning-households by paying parking site fees.
Type of monitoring Report basing on quantitative indicators
Preconditions for implementation Legislative preconditions are required => municipalities need to be entitled to chose between various strategies in providing and safeguarding sufficient parking facilities.
Best practise example Point-system for calculating costs for provision of parking facilities in Baden-Württemberg
Example Abstract Depending on the provision of public transport, land for development is grouped into different fee categories for providing parking facilities. , p.5
General comment
Status -
Ranking 3
Remark Weak direct relevance, but only in neighborhoods where instrument is applied, not on municipality as a whole
Status Approval: municipal residents, superordinate authorities and environmental NGOs
Ranking 3
Status Required are legislation and political will
Ranking 4
Remark -
Status Range of possible effects cannot be entirely controlled
Ranking 3
Remark e.g. is it thinkable that private sector does not provide sufficient parking facilities and municipality has to subsidise their provision