General Data
Name of instrument Landscape Plan (= Landschaftsplan)
Country DE
Spatial level local
Type Spatial planning instrument
Subtype Formal planning instrument
Description The Municipal Landscape Plan formulates the objectives and development goals on municipal level in regard to nature conservation and preservation of the cultural landscape (= diversified landscape characterized by extensive agricultural use). By environmental law, a Landscape Plan has to be set up " soon and as far it is necessary for reasons of nature conservation and cultural landscape preservation." (cp. Federal Environmental Law (BNatSchG) ยง 8, para. 1). That means that every major modification of landscape (urban development, road construction etc.) is to be accompanied by Landscape Planning. When reviewing their Land Use Plans, most municipalities have decided to also draft a Landscape Plan (partly because it has been co-financed by public subsidies). The Municipal Landscape Plan contains an inventory of ecologically valuable structures on municipal territory as well as objectives and strategies how to improve the environmental situation. In this context, it also discusses in what areas urban development is acceptable and what areas should be excluded from further development. Ecological Compensation Measures for building and construction are to be realized in compliance with the Landscape Plan, that means that ecological measures foreseen in the Landscape Plan such as the maintenance of extensive meadows, restoration of wetlands etc.). The drafting process of the Landscape Plan is often carried out in the form of a LA21-process, involving municipal stakeholders, agricultural representatives and interested citizens and moderated by a professional planner, who also carries out the technical part of mapping and reporting. The Municipal Landcape Plan is the local level counterpart of the federal state's Regional Landscape Program and the planning region's Landscape Master Plan. Analogous, the Local Development Plan covering only a certain area of the municipal territory has to be accompanied by a Green Structures Plan, which specifies the mitigation of ecological damages arising from the specific urban development. The Landscape Plan itself is not legally binding. Once integrated in the Land Use Plan and Local Development Plan, its stipulations however acquire legally binding character.
General objectives Integrating environmental aspects in municipal development planning.
General objectives keywords landscape planning; settlement pattern; sustainable land management;
Responsible Local authority/Municipal council
Stakeholder Involved Planners; Private individuals; Citizen groups; NGO;
General assessment of strength and weakness Strength:
- Bottom-up-approach / citizen involvement
- fosters municipal discussion on ecological objectives and strategies
- creates new, unseen alliances between agriculture, environmental groups, and local citizens

- stipulations not per se binding
Date of entry 22/02/2007
Legal status not-mandatory for responsible body AND not-mandatory for end-user
Extension very frequent (> 50 % municipalities)
Comment 71% of Germany's municipalities have drafted a Landscape Plan. As they contain an assessment of the ecological status quo at a certain time, a regular update of the Landscape Plan provides the opportunity to assess local land use planning in view of reaching environmental objectives.
Type of monitoring other (see comment)
Preconditions for implementation Funding for professional consulting. Willingness of municipal authority to involve non-elected citizens and stakeholders from the municipality in municipal planning.
General comment
Status strong direct relevance
Ranking 5
Remark -
Status municipal administration. Local economy, environmental NGOs, municipal residents, superordinate administrations
Ranking 5
Status -
Ranking 5
Remark -
Status -
Ranking 1
Remark Instrument requires a broad participation as well as know-how input and sufficient funding. Either budget or staff costs accrue, depending if the drafting of the plan is outsourced to a private consultant, which is usually the case.
Status Direction of effect, acceptability, perpetuity
Ranking 3
Remark Type of effect unclear as the Landscape Plan is a non-binding planning instrument.