General Data
Name of instrument Municipal land stock (= Kommunale Bodenbevorratung)
Country DE
Spatial level local
Type Voluntary approaches and agreements / cooperation
Subtype Voluntary, but binding contracts
Description In Germany, municipalities are by civil law entitled to acquire property and real estate (cp. BauGB §24-28). This puts them in the position to integrally develop entire neighborhoods, to pursue urban development objectives according to municipal land use plans, to provide affordable housing to local residents (= Einheimischenmodelle) or disadvantaged groups (= Sozialer Wohnungsbau) and to profit themselves from land price increases based on land use zoning. When using this instrument, municipalities buy real estate in the form of agriculture land at considerable low prices from land owners, rezone it to development land and sell it on the market. On the other hand, a pool of undeveloped real estate puts municipalities in the position to compensate land owners in other parts of the municipal territory when implementing spatial development objectives.
General objectives General objective of the municipal land stock is to put municipalities in an active position to realize sustainable spatial development according to municipal objectives. When maintaining a municipal land stock, municipalities can quickly react on compensation requirements in the course of planning and building processes.
General objectives keywords building land; municipal land policy; provision of building land to families and locals ; land development;
Responsible Local authority/Municipal council
Stakeholder Involved Entrepreneurs/businessmen; Private individuals;
Reference BauGB §24-28 http://www.intergeo.de/deutsch/page/kongress/downloads/archiv/2005/Koetter.pdf http://www.umweltbundesamt.at/umweltschutz/raumordnung/steuerung/flaechenmanagement/handelb_flntzgsrecht/ http://www.nabu.de/nachbarnatur/flaechenkontingente.pdf http://wiwi.uni-goettingen.de/vwlseminar/bizer/Forschung/Tagungen/Vortrag_Dresden2005.pdf
General assessment of strength and weakness Strengths: Improved options and possibilities for municipalities for steering spatial development, the advantage of not having to carry out land consolidation as all plots of a development area are held by the municipality and the fact that land price increases due to land use zoning directly benefit the municipal budget.
Weaknesses: Substantial financial burdens for municipalities and the depencence of the instrument on the willingness of land owners to sell agriculture land at low prices.
Metadata
Date of entry 30.01.2007
Implementation
Legal status not-mandatory
Extension frequent (<50% and >25%)
Comment Second most-frequent instrument in Germany to activate urban land for development.
Type of monitoring none
Characteristics
Preconditions for implementation Willingness of land owners to sell and sufficient financial ressources of the municipality for intermediate purchases.
Best practise example Active land policy, Municipality of Weyarn
Example Abstract The municipality of Weyarn, situated in the outer suburban ring of Munich, is implementing a policy of steering urban development with a municipal land stock. Land owners of agriculture land are offered to keep 1/3 of their land to sell on the market in exchange for selling the other 2/3 to the municipality at double of the price that applies for agriculture land. The municipality then rezones this land to urban land and sells it to local families at prices below market value. http://www.landkreis-holzminden.de/pics/medien/1_1153310126/Gemeinde_Weyarn.pdf Frey, Thomas (2004): Mehr Dorf - Weniger Fläche. Aktive kommunale Bodenpolitik - Ein Beitrag zur Begrenzung der Wohnflächenneuinanspruchnahme, unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit am Geographischen Institut der TU München. München.
Attachment Best practice Municipality of Weyarn Gemeinde_Weyarn_1182334718860.pdf
General comment
Assessment
Relevance
Status strong direct relevance
Ranking 4
Remark the instrument is relevant in regard to managing land resources, but in term of land saving it is ambivalent: it may steer tand take as the municipality benefits from development
Acceptance
Status municipal administration, local economy, municipal residents, superordinate administrations
Ranking 4
Remark
Implementation
Status -
Ranking 3
Remark -
Feasibility
Status Budget, legislation, know-how, political will, support
Ranking 5
Remark Support in the sense that land owners are willing to sell land to the municipality
Effectiveness
Status (Direction of effect), Type of effect, acceptability, perpetuity
Ranking 4
Remark The instrument's objective of providing cheap land to local residents can create conflicts with the overall objective of sustainable land use, which entails a reduction of land use for housing and construction. Therefore, the direction of effects is not always clear.